The modern psychology began with Rene Descrate (1596-1650) whose viewpoint was that reflection and introspection are investigatory methods, which are more superior to observation. He believed that the ideas of body-mind are dual and innate to knowledge. John Locke believed that interaction between body and mind in equal relationship between aspects of same unified phenomenon. Immanuel Kant reconciled the viewpoints of body and mind, and trying to relate between the mind and body and whether the mind is in control. In conclusion, contemporary psychology grapples with the same issues physiologist and philosophers grappled with as most of them concur that the mental processes and human behavior harmonize to adopt to the environment.
Longer essays may also contain an introductory page that defines words and phrases of the essay's topic. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other porting material in an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text. This scholarly convention helps others (whether teachers or fellow scholars) to understand the basis of facts and quotations the author uses to support the essay's argument and helps readers evaluate to what extent the argument is supported by evidence, and to evaluate the quality of that evidence. The academic essay tests the student's ability to present their thoughts in an organized way and is designed to test their intellectual capabilities.