Mauss and his collaborator, Henri Hubert , were criticised for this position when their 1904 Outline of a General Theory of Magic was published. "No one questioned the existence of the notion of mana", wrote Mauss's biographer Marcel Fournier , "but Hubert and Mauss were criticized for giving it a universal dimension".  Criticism of mana as an archetype of life energy increased. According to Mircea Eliade , the idea of mana is not universal; in places where it is believed, not everyone has it, and "even among the varying formulae ( mana , wakan , orenda , etc.) there are, if not glaring differences, certainly nuances not sufficiently observed in the early studies".  "With regard to these theories founded upon the primordial and universal character of mana, we must say without delay that they have been invalidated by later research".